Comment ethnographier les relations anthropozoologiques dans ces situations de fortes tensions morales? Essai de sociologie canine , Paris, Zones. Sociologie du soin par le contact animalier , Paris, Presses des Mines. Essai de sociologie historique , Paris, Presses Universitaires de France. Essai d'anthropologie symbolique, Paris, MSH.
Ethnographie d'un bestiaire familier, Paris, L'Harmattan. Anthropologie d'une passion, Paris, Fayard. The inclusion of animals as objects of research in the human and social sciences was for a long time nearly a contradiction in terms since Western "naturalistic ontology" Descola, seemed to have erected watertight boundaries between nature and culture. If animals have been present in anthropology from the very beginnings of the discipline, they were considered mainly from an anthropocentric perspective, as partners, resources, tools or attributes to characterize human cultures Manceron, However, the evolution of relations between humans and animals, marked by "ambivalence" Burton-Jeangros, Gouabault, , has gradually led to a renegotiation of the boundaries between the two categories Despret, ; Dubied, Gerber, Fall, ; Camos et al.
Similarly, the "animal turn" Delon, that is emerging in parts of the academic world is leading to new ways of understanding animals and their relationships with humans Laugrand, Cros, Bondaz, In other words, these studies, some of which are based on multi-species ethnographic field work Hurn, ; Smart, ; Kirksey, Helmreich, , do not only consider animals as "objects shaped by human societies" but also analyse "their active part in social dynamics" Michalon, Moreover, while the study of animal behaviour has traditionally been dominated by ethology, researchers in the human and social sciences are taking up the challenge and reflecting on ways of linking ethnographic survey methods with those of ethology for this purpose Latour, Strum, ; Kohler, ; Joulian, ; Lescureux, ; Lestel, Brunois, Gaunet, ; Guillo, ; Servais, , ; Louchart, These approaches, which give a new place to animals in ethnography, pose many epistemological and methodological challenges that this symposium aims to explore: how should we observe the "existing beings" Descola, , both human and non-human, from an ethnographic perspective?
Is it possible to move away from anthropocentrism to analyze the "point of view" Baratay, of animals in the study of their relationships with humans? Under what conditions is a "multi-species ethnography" feasible?
What collaborations can we envisage between the social sciences and the life sciences for this purpose? What are the specificities of the relationship with respondents when these are not human Kohler, ; Leblan, Roustan, ; Jankowski, ? One of the main objectives of this conference is to gather papers presenting ethnographic surveys, regardless of the disciplinary affiliation of the researchers, and focusing on the methodological issues related to animals in ethnography.
These may be multi-species ethnographic surveys that study human-animal interactions with a symmetrical perspective Latour, or that study animal communities. The papers could also examine the importance of these categories in research practices. Debates about the place of animals in society are currently marked by strong ideological tensions Michalon, , In this context, the study of animals and the study of anthropozoological relations also question the ethical positionings of ethnographers and their influence on ethnographic practice.
Alongside research without normative pretensions, a current of animal studies has developed which, like other strands of cultural studies gender studies, disability studies, etc. The common objective of the research developed within this interdisciplinary field of scholarship is to move away from the anthropocentric approach that has long characterized the study of relations with animals, towards a zoocentric approach that recognizes animals as moral subjects Franklin, , agents of their own existence and their relations with humans Donaldson, Kymlicka, Some of the researchers in this movement claim a connection with the anti-speciesist thinking and animal liberation theory of the Australian philosopher Peter Singer and affirm a political commitment to the abolition of animal exploitation.
This raises the question of the balance between social sciences and the animal cause Kopnina, , between a scientific approach and political commitments to animal rights Regan, , which this conference intends to discuss on the basis of papers by researchers offering a reflexive analysis of their own positionality Candea, Indeed, the French academic world is marked by ideological tensions around these issues Michalon, , which echo the growing politicization of the animal condition within society.
How does the adoption of an ethical commitment or refusal thereof, by researchers influence their relationship to the field and to respondents, both human and non-human? How is it possible to carry out the ethnography of anthropozoological relations in these situations of strong moral tensions? We interpret this ambivalent reception as the unfinished movement of transforming a performative reputation device into a legitimate evaluation institution.
The diagrammatic slideshow constitutes a crucial communicational instrument in management consulting. However, its semiotic implications remain poorly understood. How do consultants create slides that they deem significant? How do they recognize a good slide or an effective diagram? What practical criteria do they use? To tackle these questions, we develop a pragmatist approach based on the theory of signs of Charles S.
Drawing from data collected through ethnographic participant observation, our study analyzes how a team of consultants drafts a single slide intended to represent the problems of a client organization and assesses the evolving strength of the document. How did organizations comply with these new legal rules? Four in-depth case studies in two former public companies and in two private ones allow to describe and analyse the diversity of right practices and their relations with litigation. Even if some agreements try to recognize some skills and abilities acquired through union experiences, they mainly include a new rhetoric on social partnership.
Environmental policy increasingly resorts to market-based instruments in order to meet sustainability objectives. In this paper, we examine the complex ways in which the operationalization of policy objectives and the organization of markets are intertwined, focusing on two other examples of European environmental regulation. The second one is the Renewable Energy Directive from , which introduced criteria for the definition of the sustainability of biofuels.
Through the analysis of the design and implementation of these two directives, we identify a central concern for the coexistence of various objects, and various initiatives undertaken by European institutions, member states and private actors. We use the notion of coexistence to describe a European political and economic ordering that is inherently hybrid, and cannot be reduced to a mere delegation of policy objectives to the market, or a legal constraint imposed on all European actors.
The present article analyzes potential and limits of crowdsourcing software mobile and web applications as tools for civic participation. Based on an empiric study of six Russian and French civic applications, developed in response to a particular public problem corruption, electoral falsifications, police violence and urban problems , the article proposes to address the problem of digital asymmetry from the perspective of pragmatism, STS and software studies The author focuses on the phase of design, coding and testing, and analyzes the procedures of standardization and classification necessary for developing the interfaces.
Developing a civic application, coders propose a certain definition of a public problem and rectify it in the interface. The article argues that an active participation of users in the improvement of the application may help to overcome the limits and asymmetries.
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The PhD dissertation studies new digital participative technologies called "civic apps", applications for mobile and web developed in response to a large scope of public problems and based on the principle of crowdsourcing. The research focuses on the conception of these tools, their usages and the way these tools transform the communication among citizens and between citizens and public administrations.
It also explores new formats of civic tech innovation, such as civic hackathons, and question the usage of programming code as a new tool of collective action. The thesis calls upon the methodologies of sociology of science and technology, sociology of public problems, political science and science of information and communication. Based on a case-study of several civic apps in France and Russia, the inquiry adresses the following question: how does the translation of public problems into programming code occur?
And how do these applications transform civic participation? The research shows that the interfaces standardize and format the practices of participation, using documents such as laws, technical norms and standards.
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However, this standardization has its limits. Focusing on the moments of failure and trial, such as tests, updates or debug of applications, the inquiry highlights the practices of bricolage and detournement, deployed by users in order to overcome the framing by design and participate in the rewriting of the applications. The thesis compares civic applications with the applications developed by public administrations and distinguishes two models of communication called the "long chains" and the "short chains". However, instead of opposing administrative and civic initiatives, the thesis proposes to think from "in-between", analyzing the articulations and arrangements of these socio-technical networks.
This paper aims at giving an overview of the different core protocols used for decentralized chat and email-oriented services.
The broadening of the anti-discrimination legislation and the growing use of litigation have put pressure on organizations to respond to the law by elaborating formal rules and, in the case of France, negotiating collective agreements on union rights. This article addresses the issue of union victimization by investigating the various organizational responses to anti-discrimination law. By focusing on in-depth case studies over a long period of time, it offers new insights into the processes whereby law is internalized and how they interact with litigation over time, and also highlights the active, contested and changing role of HR professionals and trade unionists in the shaping of organizational responses.
The idea of reflexivity has much to offer to the analysis of taste - but reflexivity in its ancient sense, a form neither active nor passive, pointing to an originary state where things, persons, and events have just arrived, with no action, subject or objects yet decided. Objects of taste are not present, inert, available and at our service.
They give themselves up, they shy away, they impose themselves. On the contrary, they make themselves detect them, through a continuous elaboration of procedures that put taste to the test. Rather, it is a collective technique, whose analysis helps us to understand the ways we make ourselves sensitized, to things, to ourselves, to situations and to moments, while simultaneously controlling how those feelings might be shared and discussed with others.
Que se passe-t-il entre les gens, entre les lieux, entre les moments. But why and how do experiments matter, and for whom? Answering these questions requires that one leave the locality of the experimental site and account for the construction of wider spaces wherein experiments matter.
Using examples related to the public debate on, critique and government of nanotechnology in France, the article identifies three of these spaces. The first one is characterized by the replication of technologies of participation, the second by the conduct of radical critique, and the third by the constitution of objects of government. Thus, the study of political experiments proposed here offers analytical entry points for an examination of democratic ordering.
The European Union is the outcome of a process that is still very much in development.
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This process was conceived from its inception as a matter of perfecting a collective of at least three identities: a geographical space torn apart by devastating wars and longing for peace, a market that could benefi t from the extension of the circulation of economic goods, and a political entity where liberal democracy would finally triumph. Th e idea of progress was at the core of the European project and closely articulated with the rapid economic growth experienced by Western European countries in the postwar decades.
Progress, there, was as much economic as it was political and moral, as it associated the extension of markets with the development of liberal democracy and a collective concern for lasting peace. This article investigates the modalities of integration of social, political and moral issues in urban consumption markets. The analysis follows the history of the reforms of the French retail implementation provisions over the past 40 years. By examining three significant episodes of this history, it highlights the importance of interweaving concerned actors in market agencements, and shaping market boundaries.
The field-in-emergence is creating futures, problems and new objects that remain elusive. By turning an ethnographic gaze on the nascent stages of a new research field, we can pose interesting questions about the formation of local configurations and their relations to wider policies and actions in ways that the analysis of established fields would struggle to illuminate. Placing a science means that the practices and discourses of the science co-emerge with its modes of organisation and geographies and with its histories and futures.
- Tomorrows Winds.
- The Earth - Moon System and Tides (The Arm Chair Astronomy Series Book 2).
- LIslam Pour les Nuls (French Edition);
- Hot Blonde Striptease (Vintage Erotica Adult Picture Book)?
- Electromagnetics for High-Speed Analog and Digital Communication Circuits;
- The Glass Slipper: Women and Love Stories.
Lafayette anticipation est une fondation d'art contemporain qui met l'accent sur la production et l'accompagnement des artistes. The quandaries of business valuation have marked the pedagogy of business administration since early attempts at institutionalizing the managerial discipline. It is however now commonly admitted, at least in legitimate financial and entrepreneurial circles, that the value of a business that is, the monetary assessment of a functioning enterprise established in a competitive environment resides primarily in its earning power or, in other words, that what a business is worth equals its capacity to generate a stream of revenues for the investor or investors that provide it with funding.
How did this idea take shape and how did it permeate the business mind? An examination of early pedagogical materials at the Harvard Business School an influential reference for the socialization of the businessperson and, in particular, of the vagaries of the idea of capitalization and its exercising in the classroom provides a fine occasion to advance understanding of the meaning of such ideals of business and business value, and of their institutionalization. This empirical study can, in turn, be employed in order to discuss and refine critically our interpretation of what a convention of economic valuation is and how it operates.
How natural is economic nature and how provocative is it to claim that this nature is a provoke done? The purpose of this contribution is to expose the problem of the naturalness of economic things. The very idea of the performativity of economics and the critical reactions it prompts are analysed in these terms: that is, as an anthropological test on the quandaries of economic naturalism. This study examines the role of the academic affiliation in research evaluation.
The increasing structural complexity of the French research landscape has a massive influence onthe construction of reliable indicators for the purposes of research assessment, one of the mostdamageable downside being the heterogeneity of the bibliometric indicators. The study aimsto make the inventory of practices and to suggest solutions, sometimes relying on technology,to overcome the visibility issue of the French research and higher education institutions.
This paper examines the testing and the pricing of orphan drugs, e.